Bangalore lies in the southeast of the South Indian state of Karnataka. It is in the heart of the Mysore Plateau (a region of the larger Cretaceous Deccan Plateau) at an average elevation of 900 m (2,953 ft). It is located at 12°58′44″N 77°35′30″E and covers 741 km2 (286 sq mi). Th/ majority of the city of Bangalore lies in the Bangalore Urban district of Karnataka and the surrounding rural areas are a part of the Bangalore Rural district. The Government of Karnataka has carved out the new district of Ramanagara from the old Bangalore Rural district
Bangalore's topography is generally flat, although the western parts of the city are hilly. The highest point is Vidyaranyapura Doddabettahalli, 962 m (3,156 ft) above sea level, situated to the northwest of the city No major rivers run through the city, although the Arkavathi and South Pennar cross paths at the Nandi Hills, 60 km (37 mi) to the north. River Vrishabhavathi, a minor tributary of the Arkavathi, arises within the city at Basavanagudi and flows through the city. The rivers Arkavathi and Vrishabhavathi together carry much of Bangalore's sewage.
A sewerage system, constructed in 1922, covers 215 km2 (83 sq mi) of the city and connects with five sewage treatment centres located in the city's periphery.In the 16th century, Kempe Gowda I constructed many lakes to meet the town's water requirements. The Kempambudhi Kere, since overrun by modern development, was prominent among those lakes. In the first half of the 20th century, the Nandi Hills waterworks were commissioned by Sir Mirza Ismail (Diwan of Mysore, 1926–41 CE) to provide a water supply to the city. The river Kaveri provides around 80% of the city's water supply and the remaining 20% is obtained from the Thippagondanahalli and Hesaraghatta reservoirs of the Arkavathi river. Bangalore receives 800 million litres (210 million US gallons) of water a day, more than any other Indian city,but Bangalore does face occasional water shortages, especially during summer and in years with low rainfall. A random sampling of the air quality index (AQI) of twenty stations within the city ranged from 76 to 314, suggesting heavy to severe air pollution around areas of high traffic.
Bangalore is one of the fastest-growing metropolises in India.Bangalore contributes 38% of India's total IT exports.Its economy is primarily service oriented and industrial,dominated by information technology, telecommunication, biotechnology, and manufacturing of electronics, machinery, automobiles, food, etc.
The city is widely regarded as the "Silicon Valley of India", as the largest IT hub of the continent.Infosys, Wipro, Mindtree, Mphasis, Flipkart, Myntra are headquartered in Bangalore.Information technology companies located in the city contributed 33% of India's ₹1,442 billion (US$20 billion) IT exports in 2006–07. Bangalore's IT industry is divided into three main clusters: Software Technology Parks of India (STPI); International Tech Park, Bangalore (ITPB); and Electronic City.Most of the IT companies are located in Bommanahalli, Domlur, Whitefield, Electronic City, Krishnarajapuram, Bellandur, Mahadevapura.